Who Figured that Out?

imageEarly last year, I sent a few family members an article about the work that was being done in Pittsburgh to clean Kaufman’s Clock. My daughter asked a somewhat technical question about the sandblasting technique the workers were using and my brother quickly answered it. My daughter replied:

Interesting. I always wonder who first makes these discoveries.”

And…, my brother answered that:

Most of the time we can’t trace them to one person but… Benjamin Chew Tilghman (1821–1901) was an American soldier and inventor. He is best known as the inventor of the process of sandblasting. Go to Wikipedia for more info — he later patented a process he called a liquid sharpener for files.”

That’s how our family is. My wife shares this trait (so Faith is doomed) of not being content with merely accepting stuff – we all want to know more, we will all conduct some research on a subject of interest. Faith’s question may have its origins in my genes though, because I often wonder who figured out the things we take for granted today.

In my day job, I have had the pleasure of listening to some of the people who figured out Graphical User Interfaces (GUI), Laser Printers, Mice and the technical stuff behind local area networks. We take all of this for granted today, but back in the early ‘80s, people were calling it crazy talk. Knowing this doesn’t make my job easier, but it makes me appreciate things more.

I started thinking about this again after reading another great imagepost on my blog friend’s ItKindaGotAwayFromYou blog. This time, the subject was mushroom hunting. So now I have two blog buddies who seem to know how to hunt for mushrooms, check out West Virginia Mountain Momma’s blog (search for mushrooms because she has several wonderful posts on the subject).

So here’s my thing with mushrooms: Some are delicious, some can make you sick and some are poisonous with a capital POISON but who determined which kind are which? I’m sure at some point there was the unfortunate observation that a particular kind of mushroom killed some of the folks who ate it. But, how did they go forward from that point? I mean, there are about 10,000 kinds of mushrooms. Did they start testing them on the dog? The neighbor? The spouse? My wife doesn’t eat mushrooms; is that a taste preference on her part or a survival instinct?

My father once boiled some mushrooms with a silver Quarter in the pot. He said that if they were poisonous, the Quarter would turn black. Of course this was in the ‘60s, before the Internet and Snopes and when Quarters were still made with silver.

Note: there is no scientific evidence that you can test for mushroom toxicity in this manner. I have a degree in Chemistry, you can trust me.

I don’t get hung up over every discovery. Some stuff, once you think about it, makes perfect sense. Take, for instance the colors we use for clothing and painting our world. I can easily imagine some cave woman looking at a smushed berry, liking the color of the stain and saying “I need shoes and a pocketbook in that color.” I don’t think guys cared about color until cars were invented, by which time most colors had been replicated in the paint shop.

Similarly, I can see how Newton and others discovered and refined our understanding of gravity, but how did we discover how high is too high to jump from? I think somebody probably figured that out before those brainiacs came up withgravity-eq I’m guessing that there were several observations involved but I doubt a bunch of cavemen started by jumping off a rock, increasing the height little by little until one of them broke a few bones. It was probably more like

Thag jump from there. Thag die. That too high.”

The flip side of this is when I “discover” things. (I mentioned this in an earlier post “Is Anything Obvious” in a rant against people ignoring obvious things). I discovered that Kanga and Roo (in the Disney Channel’s Winnie the Pooh), were kangaroos. My very young daughter looked at me and my wife with the perfect “really?” look on her face as I tried to explain that:

No, of course I knew they were kangaroos, but their names make up the word kan – ga – roo. Oh, did you guys already know that? I …see.”

You might remember the Presidential Debate where Texas Governor Rick Perry said:

“…there are three cabinet departments I would eliminate: Commerce, Education and… (insert sound of crickets here)”

I’m having a Rick Perry moment right now. Somewhere in my notes, there are three things that I wonder who figured out. I can only find two. Oh well, I guess you get off easy today. Thanks for stopping by. If you wonder about stuff like this, please share that in a comment below.

Posted in Family, History, Humor | Tagged , , , , , , | 18 Comments

What Women Know

Earlier this week, a friend and I had what might qualify as an exchange of serendipity. She (Amy) wrote a blog post about change on a day that I was frustrated with the amount of change and particularly the pace of change in the technology that surrounds me and with which I make my living. Hers was such a simple message, but it reminded me of why I love what I do. It reminded me that I love a changing environment and that I would be bored to tears in a job that never changed. image

If you’re wondering about the growing disconnect between what I’ve written so far and the title, hang on.

The other half of the serendipity exchange came after a few comments on Amy’s blog. I started off with a small bit of encouragement in a comment that I left for her. I know how comments, even short ones can mean a lot to a blogger but I didn’t want to go into the reason her post had helped me. Amy responded, thanking me for the support, I responded, Amy responded (you can read the comments if you’re interested) and it seems that my comment helped her discover something that she wasn’t looking for. Serendipity exchanged…but wait, there’s more.

Amy mentioned that sometimes, she doesn’t know why she’s posting something, but she “just knows” that it’s the right thing to post.

She just knows.

She just knows?

She. Just. Knows!

Ugh, I hate that.

Of course I don’t really hate that, but it’s frustrating when women just know stuff. Don’t start in on me – I’m not being all sexist and stuff here. I’m just speaking from experience. My experience, in which most men want to figure things out, want to know the reason, want to work through the logical path from A to B to C and so forth into the upper reaches of the alphabet if necessary while many women in my life just know stuff.

Way back in the ‘80s, I had a 1977 Dodge pickup truck that was losing antifreeze. There was never a spot on the ground, or at least not one I could pick out and identify as antifreeze. The truck wasn’t overheating (until the level of antifreeze in the radiator was too low) and there were no signs of antifreeze in the engine compartment. The hoses were new, added when the water pump had recently been replaced. Suspecting a leaking head gasket, I changed and carefully inspected the oil. No signs of antifreeze. Frustrated, I stood there looking at the engine for what I might be missing. My wife walked up and quipped “maybe there’s a pinhole in one of the hoses.”

I think my response was:

Yeah that must be it, a piiiin hole in the hose, cuz that happens.” Although maybe the last few words were merely in my head.

You all know how this ends; there was a pin hole in one of the brand new radiator hoses. I didn’t discover that fact for several weeks, and I have yet to live that experience down.

I have also yet to learn how to just trust my wife’s intuition. Actually, I mentioned that in an earlier post. Amy and I also had a comment exchange after that post, which ended with her saying:

“…When are you guys just going to get it that women are “wired” differently and that our “hunches” are usually (99.9999999%) right?

Note: ‘guys’ is plural because Amy and her husband have been married almost as long as my wife and I have been (a long time) and, apparently, he doesn’t get it either.

But, from my point of view, there’s nothing to “get” – you can’t just know stuff. Still, the number of times that my wife has suggested the right cause for a problem or the best course of action in a situation (a situation where, I might add, she has no earthly qualification to suggest such reason or approach) is – a – large – number.

Earlier this year, a couple of women in our imageoffice suggested that the garbage disposal was making a funny sound. “Making a funny sound” is a signature statement of a woman who just knows something. “The thing is grinding garbage, what kind of sound do you expect it to make?

I turned the disposal imageon. I listened. I tossed a few ice cubes in and listened. It sounded fine to me. Still, I was so haunted by the number of times my wife has said: “Do you hear that?” “Did you hear that?” or “My car is making a funny sound” that I almost just had the disposal replaced.


This morning, I mentioned to my wife that I have to deal with the building manager to try and find a plumber to replace our garbage disposal. Because I don’t hide much from my wife (because she will find out eventually) I told her about the earlier “warning” I had received from the women in the office.

Why didn’t you listen to them?

Because, the new one comes out of my budget, and I can’t just go spending money without a good reason.”

OK, I get it. I had a good reason. They just knew.

Posted in Family, Humor, Rant | Tagged , , , , , , , | 37 Comments

The Cafe Car is Open

imageTwo weeks ago, I was traveling by train to Washington, DC. Windsor Locks, a.k.a. my home base, is only the second stop on the train that originates in Springfield, MA and the café car isn’t always in operation when I board. I’m not sure why, maybe the coffee hasn’t finished brewing or the cream cheese is still hard as a rock. In any case, a few minutes after we started rolling toward Hartford, I heard the announcement expressed in the title. If you follow this blog, you know how much l prefer trains over air travel and next to “All aboard” this is the thing I like hearing the most.

Travel is full of statements and snippets of information that greatly reduce whatever stress level I may have raised too. In addition to the two listed above, I also love hearing the following:

You’re all set” – That seems to be a kinda-sorta standard answer with the TSA folks at BDL where I begin most air travel. I love hearing that, even though I am still waiting in line with arguably the worst part of the process standing in front of me. The shoe-belt-laptop-phone-change-watch-and-liquid removing step that comes next doesn’t bother me as much as waiting in line for the guy or gal to check my boarding pass and ID. Even the scan, with its privacy-invading capabilities doesn’t bother me – move along, nothing to see here – just let me get to my gate.

We are next in line for take-off – Sweet! Air travel is imageseries of teasing moments. First, you are called to board, only to find yourself standing in line in the Jetway. I have been stuck in Jetways long enough to create the place on Foursqure (back before they ruined that social media service). I was even the mayor of a Jetway at BDL. Of course, exiting the Jetway puts you in a more cramped slower moving line inside the plane because we board by status not by row. And, once seated, stowed, buckled with seat and tray-table up, cell phone off, instructions listened to and puke-bag located, you wait. Sometimes you wait at the gate. Sometimes you roll for a while and wait or roll for a while and wait some more. “Next in line for take-off” means that it’s almost time to use the hashtag #upInTheAir.

…and I have a room ready for you – I don’t care if it’s on the umpteenth floor with a view of the building next door, my room is ready! That means I don’t have to do the hang in the lobby thing or sit at the bar with my luggage. Of course, that’s when I’m traveling alone, which I usually do. If I’m traveling with someone, waiting for a room / better room is ok…unless the person is my friend (let’s call him John).

Once, while traveling with John, we were told at the desk that they were upgrading us to rooms on the concierge level with a river view and several nice amenities but that they wouldn’t be ready for 45 min. I started to say “we’ll wait in the bar” cuz when you have two people; waiting in the bar is easy duty. My buddy interrupted with “we’ll take whatever you have available now” – rooms without a view of the river, and a room (mine) without a fully functional toilet. It worked, but I had to hold the lever down – the – entire – time. I thought of John each time I peed.

We have a nice room with an ocean view – This doesn’t usually happen to me, but it happened the year I took my daughter with me to our Annual Meeting. The downside of the ocean view rooms is that the cellular signal is weak. But, watching the sunrise over the ocean is a pretty cool thing.

I have a Dodge Nitro… – Actually, I don’t care so much about the brand / model, but the time that I got a Dodge Nitro, the two people in line behind me ended up not getting a car. In a Seinfeld-inspired moment, they had all of our reservations, but they only had one car.

Yes, you can eat at the bar – Because I really like to do that when I’m traveling solo. I’ve already explained the whole eating-at-a-bar thing, so I won’t repeat it here. If you’re interested you can read about that here.

This train/flight has WiFi – Of course, this is even better on the train where it’s free as opposed to the we-make-so-much-money-from-fees model that the airlines use. Thanks AMTRAK!

Use of cellular phones is prohibited – This may not last but I love hearing it. I am not looking forward to being stuck in front of / next to / behind some loud-mouthed town crier who feels the need to call everybody he/she knows and tell them the – exact – same – story.

An upgrade is available – This doesn’t happen to me often but when it does, I feel like one of the pretty people. This did happen on our honeymoon. That’s a different story but it had a very happy ending.

Go Buccos / Go Steelers – I am often wearing team gear when I travel and these two teams are as likely to draw a comment as the home team in almost any city.

Posted in Humor, Perspective, Travel | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , | 31 Comments

On a grey day – a bit of colour

Dan Antion:

For those of you who like photography, my friend David shares pictures from Ipswich in England. I particularly like the reflection in this one.

Originally posted on Ipswich Waterfront Images:

It has been a very grey day today. Started out with heavy rain and thunderstorms – most unlike the last few weeks. The day was brightened up by the arrival of The Schooner Trinovante. She has been here before but it was good to see her on a day like this.


View original

Posted in Uncategorized | 9 Comments

Bookshelf Tag (no tags)

imageA couple of weeks ago Evelyne Holingue introduced me to the Bookshelf Tag in her wonderful French/English blog. She didn’t tag me, but I love books and I thought that I could have fun with this. Of course, I was slow to take up the challenge and Jolene Mottern took some of the snarky steps I might have taken. So, if my post looks like hers, it’s not plagiarism, it’s great minds thinking alike. In my first apparent theft from Jolene, I’ll go on record about the fact that I’m not going to tag anyone else. I think I did say that in a comment on Evelyne’s blog, maybe even before Jolene. Maybe she stole that from me.

OK, enough about how I got here; there are 10 questions to answer. But, before I answer them, I should tell you that my answers aren’t going to be all literary and classic mentioning bits of wisdom. I read stuff that I find interesting and I like what I like, so here goes:

1 – Is there a book that you really want to read but haven’t because you know that it’ll make you cry?

Now I’m wondering if I’ve accidentally stepped into a women’s only challenge. I once walked into a Women’s Restroom by mistake and that was unpleasant for all involved. Oh, right, books. Yeah, I’m not a big crying kind of guy. Let’s skip this one.

2 – Pick one book that helped introduce you to a new genre.

Actually, Evelyne’s book “Trapped in Paris” introduced me to Young Adult Fiction. It’s been a long time since I was a young adult. It’s a fun, engaging thriller and I recommend it regardless of age. I am a slow, methodical reader; I read certain books at certain times. I’m reading this book, in small bites, before going to sleep. I will say that it has kept me up a few nights.

3 – Find a book that you want to reread.

From the Twilight Zone.” I read this book so many times in Junior High School, I think I was the only name on the front side of the library card. I started thinking about it after another blog buddy featured some of Rod Serling’s books on Shadow & Substance. I found a copy on eBay and my wife bought it for me. Yeah, she’s an enabler.

4 – Is there a book series you’ve read but wish that you hadn’t?

Like Joey said, there are ones I wouldn’t imageread again, but I’m glad I read them, the books featuring Jack Ryan for example. The question seems a little weird. I mean if I wished I hadn’t read a series of books, I would think I would have stopped reading it. Now I’ll introduce you to the reason I added the disclaimer about literary works. A series that I loved reading and will probably re-read is a 25-year collection of reprints of Popular Mechanics Shop Notes from 1905 to 1930. These were written at a time when men made things and made the things that they made things with.

One of my favorite tips was how to repair a mill’s main shaft. This would be a 6” diameter huge hunk of iron. The shaft broke, and the solution was to “chisel connecting slots on opposite sides of the shaft, insert key-stock in the slot and bind it with a steel band…” Let me just say that “chiseling a slot in iron” is, not, easy.

My second favorite tip is “how to remove a stuck pulley using dynamite.” Seriously, who doesn’t like stuff like that?

5- If your house was burning down and all of your family and pets were safe, which book would you go back inside to save?

OK, first off you would have to add ‘tools’ to family and imagepets. Then I might still put photos and backup drives ahead of books. “The Twenty Elephant Restaurant” would be high on my list because I think it’s out of print and amazon and eBay don’t always have used copies for sale. It’s a fantastic children’s story that my brother gave us when our daughter was born. And, in more ways than one, I resemble the husband in the story.

6 – Is there one book on your bookshelf that brings back fond memories?

There are several: “Miracle at Midway” – I borrowed it from imagea friend so many times that he finally gave it to me. Also,“Hollywood’s Celebrity Gangster, The Incredible Life and Times of Mickey Cohen;” because I met my friend Brad Lewis (the author) in the bar at the Cambridge Hyatt and I had wonderful time talking to him that night and again the following evening (more about that in previous post). I should add “The Twenty Elephant Restaurant” because of fun times we had reading it to Faith. And, you can toss in almost all Dr. Seuss books but especially “Green Eggs & Ham” and “The Sneetches”. And yes, that’s my stuffed star-bellied Sneetch. Owning that should make up for my skipping question #1.

7 – Find a book that has inspired you the most.

Wow, that’s hard. I’ve read a lot of inspiring stories. It might seem like a cliché, but I think I would put the Bible ahead of books about General Patton, the battle of Midway and The 20 Elephant Restaurant?

8 – Do you have any autographed books?

I do, but either they aren’t signed to me or they imagearen’t signed by the author. We have a copy of “Great White Doctor” but Brad Lewis signed it and sent it to my wife. I bought him a glass of scotch and I bought a copy of Celebrity Gangster but he signed a book for my wife – go figure. I have a Delta tool maintenance handbook that was signed and given to my dad and my copy of Miracle at Midway is signed by my friend who has since passed away.

9 – Find the book that you have owned the longest.

Warning – repeat answer coming. That little New Testament imagepictured here was given to me in Sunday School, probably before I could read most of it.

10 – Is there a book by an author that you never imagined you would read or enjoy?

Mythology” by Edith Hamilton. In fact, I would never have read this book if it wasn’t required by my poetry professor. I’m running out of room here but you can read more about that story in an earlier post.

Posted in Absent Friends, Opinion, Prompt | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 29 Comments

A Walk Among the Monuments

imageI spent most of the past week in Washington, DC. I’ve been to Washington several times, but my trips have always been of the in-business-out variety, including prescription nightlife. This time, I had a couple of hours to do some sightseeing. My hotel was close to the National Mall so I headed in that direction. I entered the area, according to the official map, known as The Mall. At that point I had a choice to make. Head toward the Capitol or head to the monuments and memorials. That was an easy choice – Go visit the people who do nothing or walk among the people who did everything they could possibly do.

National Mall

The first monument I encountered was the tall one, the Washington Monument. It was the tallest building in the world when built but was rapidly shoved deep into 2nd place by the Eiffel Tower. The Washington Monument still is the tallest masonry monument. I add that bit of qualification since there seems to be a debate about imagewhether it’s the tallest masonry structure or just the tallest stone structure. Whatever, it’s tall and I don’t want to think about how hard it was to build. If it wasn’t so well documented, somebody would be arguing that it was built by aliens.

I didn’t go into the monument because I didn’t have time. One big monument, honoring one famous man didn’t compare well to several shorter monuments honoring millions of men and women who served in the countless battles of multiple wars.

I took some pictures as I circled around the right side and I marveled at the workmanship. I listened to a tour guide talk about how the marble blocks are held together by gravity. There is mortar, but apparently it’s for weather-proofing not to hold things together.

In my last post, I mentioned touring the Grand Coulee Dam. Gravity is also doing the work there. The massive dam sits on bedrock and simply weighs more than the 9,155,942 m3 (2,418,743,967 US gallons) of water resting up against it. I digress, but I think that’s interesting.

The next stop on my walk was the place I wanted to see the most, the WWII memorial. The memorial is large. Anchored by monuments to the Pacific and European theaters of war, the memorial fountain is ringed by standards for each of the states and US territories involved in the war. Several of these were important to me – Pennsylvania, for my dad, West Virginia and Connecticut for my Father-in-law, and the Philippines because that is where my father ended up during the war. I had relatives who fought in Europe, but this isn’t a walk through my family tree.

(Note: In the galleries of pictures, you can hover over to see a caption or click to start a slide show).

From the WWII monument, I walked to and through the Vietnam Veterans Memorial – The Wall. I had previously seen The Moving Wall when it came to West Hartford, CT. I found the name I wanted to find and I shared a text message with the people that I know that care about that person. I was struck by the memorial’s stature. The WWII memorial rises up around you and is punctuated by descriptions of historic battles and statements that call attention to the battle between the forces of good and the forces of evil. The Vietnam Memorial sinks below and simply lists the names of the soldiers who died in that war. There was no grand purpose to praise, no battles to remember, no day that will live in Infamy and no parade for those soldiers who returned.

My next stop was the Lincoln Memorial. While memorializing a great man, the Lincoln Memorial has also come to represent the fight for civil rights in which President Lincoln played such a significant role. From the steps of the memorial are some of the most recognized views of the Mall. One thing that I missed on those steps is an inscription marking the exact location from which Martin Luther King delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” speech. You can see a picture of that inscription in this article.

I continued to the Korean War Veterans Memorial for the final leg of my quick tour. I have to admit that prior to discovering Pacific Paratroopers blog, I didn’t know much about the Korean War. As the author of that blog moves into a discussion of WWII, I am finding that I don’t know as much about that war as I thought I did (and I thought I knew a lot). The Korean War memorial was haunting. The lifelike 7’ tall statues of soldiers in permanently muted action calls attention to the struggle of individual men and women in another conflict that refuses to fit neatly into history.

The statement “Freedom Is Not Free” stands at the east end of the memorial. Opposite from that statement are the carved totals indicating the price that was paid for this particular fight for freedom.

My favorite part of my walking tour was seeing the Honorimage Flight visitors walking and navigating wheel chairs around the WWII Memorial. My father-in-law was able to participate in his honor flight about a year before he died, and it meant a lot to him. One guy asked me if I wanted him to move so I could get a better picture. I told him “I think the picture is better with you in it, thank you!

Posted in Absent Friends, History, Photography | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 54 Comments

I Was the Remote

imageEarlier this week, I was having dinner with a few friends and we were talking about the differences between our children’s experiences and our own from childhood. I’ll apologize to my daughter as well as to the sons and daughters of those friends, but that’s what parents do. Our life was harder and in many ways the world was a more difficult place in which to live. In other ways, life was simpler, and it moved at a slower, more manageable pace, but we only focus on one side of the coin at a time. That’s because we’re getting old, but you knew that.

We were going through a list of the things that our children have never seen or the things that were miracle inventions to us that they have never know life without. Since I am a little older than my friends, my daughter is a little older than their children and she was on just the other side of the line in some cases. She does remember life before Internet access was a household staple, but we had CompuServe and AOL Instant Message (AIM) and IRC Chat. Faith is old enough to remember TV before cable, but we didn’t let her watch much TV prior to when cable brought us The Disney Channel. Saturday morning cartoons were about all that she might have seen.

That’s actually how we old folks got started on our conversation. One of my friends mentioned that his kids were in bed on Saturday morning watching cartoons via Netflix on their iPads. We all remembered being on the living room floor with a bowl of cereal and we thought bed + iPad + Netflix was just wrong.

I shared a story about when my daughter was able to go back in time with respect to TVs. We were on a vacation (yes, that vacation) and we drove around Washington State. We toured Grand Coulee Dam, and from there we headed west via the North Cascades Highway with a side trip to Mt Baker. From Coulee City, we drove to Winthrop, WA, as a staging area so we could begin our trip through the North Cascades early.

Winthrop is a western themed tourist town, but we were up for that. We stayed in a saloon-styled hotel that had a VHS Tape lending library in the lobby. Faith thought that was nice, but I’m not sure she appreciated the reason at first. Winthrop, located on the east side of the Cascades with not much else around it, didn’t have cable. Winthrop had the 3 broadcast networks and PBS, just like we had in Pittsburgh when I was a child. Those broadcast signals were delivered via repeater transmitters, over the Cascades.

Once in our room, Faith scurried to find the right bed (best view of TV) and, the, remote – Faith had control of the remote throughout that trip. Interestingly, there was no remote. No remote? How does that work? I introduced Faith to “The Dial” and the list of those 4 channels. As in every other town across America, they weren’t 1,2,3 & 4. No, they were 2, 8, 11 and 53 and 53 required setting the first dial at “U” and then dialing in the spot between 52.5 & 53.7 that had the least “snow” by using the second, smaller dial.

After we laughed about her experience, one of my dinner companions admitted to not remembering life before remotes. He looked at me and one other guy and said: “you guys actually remember life without a remote?” At that point, my friend and I both said: “I was the remote. My dad just told me to change the channel.image

It’s true.

Not only were we the remotes, but we were intelligent remotes. My dad would say “put the ballgame on” and I spun the dial to KDKA which was channel 2. I was an early incarnation of Siri (and I think I worked better) “Siri, what channel is the ballgame on?

Actually, Siri handled that better than I expected.

We weren’t just the TV remote, we were errand boys. From the point that we could be trusted to carry a few dollars, my brother and I were sent to Jule’s Market for everything from a pound of Chipped Ham to a pack of cigarettes. Yes, this was the early 60’s; kids could buy cigarettes for their parents. The worst errand was to get pop (soda for my New England followers) because that required carrying bottles both ways. Six empty bottles to the store and six full ones home. Early in my errand running days, I had a single-speed bike with a basket. That worked fine for trips to the store. After I destroyed that bike (see earlier post) I ultimately ended up with a 3-speed English Racer with hand brakes, gears and no room for a basket. I learned to carry a bag or a 6-pack of pop in one hand while steering, shifting and braking with the other.

Yeah, kids today have it way easy. Then again, their kids will be able to tap their phones and have Amazon fly them a 6-pack. Time marches on.

Posted in Nostalgia, Perspective | Tagged , , , , , , , | 28 Comments